BIOLOGY CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS

                                                                    BIOLOGY
                               
                                               CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS   





UNIT I: Diversity in Living World
Details:
• What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life;
Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy;
Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos,
Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
• Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista
and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
• Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes,
Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and
distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiospermsclassification
up to class, characteristic features and examples).
• Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and
chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two
examples).

UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
Details:
• Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts
of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose,
flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the
Practical Syllabus).
• Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems
(digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect
(cockroach). (Brief account only).

UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function
Details:
• Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell
wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic
reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids,
micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and
function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
• Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of
proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme
action.
• B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

UNIT IV: Plant Physiology
Details:-
• Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell
transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations
– Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of
water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and
guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and
translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow
hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
• Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role;
Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a
method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle,
biological nitrogen fixation.
• Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of
photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary
idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non
cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3
and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
• Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation
(anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-
Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory
quotient.
• Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and
plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and
redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth
regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy;
Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.


UNIT V: Human Physiology
Details:-
• Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive
enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and
assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins,
carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM,
indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
• Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory
system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of
gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders
related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
• Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of
blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of
human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double
circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-
Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
• Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism,
ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine
formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial
Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion;
Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial
kidney.
• Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular;
Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its
functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints;
Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular
dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
• Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humanscentral
nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system;
Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary
structure and function of eye and ear.
• Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human
endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal,
Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones
as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common
disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes,
Addison’s disease).
(Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)




0 comments:

Your comments about BIOLOGY CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS