BIOLOGY CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS

                                                             BIOLOGY   

                                          CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS 







UNIT I: Reproduction
Details:-
• Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all
organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and
sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding,
gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
• Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male
and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding
devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-
Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of
fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of
seed and fruit formation.
• Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic
anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis;
Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation,
implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition
(Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
• Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually
transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and
Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted
reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general
awareness).

UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution
Details:-
• Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-
Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood
groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome
theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans,
birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia,
Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal
disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
• Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic
material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central
dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation-
Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
• Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological
evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular
evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution;
Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural
Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift;
Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare
Details:-
• Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria,
Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring
worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS;
Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
• Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell
protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
• Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production,
sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications
Details:-
• Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant
DNA technology).
• Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and
vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops;
Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.


UNIT V: Ecology and environment
Details:-
• Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological
adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation,
parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age
distribution.
• Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow;
Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and
phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation,
pollination, oxygen release.
• Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of
Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity
conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book,
biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
• Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its
control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive
waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion;
Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental
issues.

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