CHEMISTRY CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS

                                             CHEMISTRY 
                                              
                                          CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS
  







UNIT I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
Details:-
• General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.
• Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements,
atoms and molecules.
• Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage
composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions,
stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry. 

UNIT II: Structure of Atom
Details:-
• Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature
of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle,
concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling
electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s
rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely
filled orbitals.

UNIT III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Details:-
• Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties
of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy,
electronegativity, valence.

UNIT IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Details:-
• Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure,
polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of
molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals
and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear
diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.



UNITV: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
Details:-
• Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and
boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule,
Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of
gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation.
Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal
behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
• Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea
only, no mathematical derivations).

UNITVI : Thermodynamics
Details:-
• First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and
specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat
summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization,
sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution.
• Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs
energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for
equilibrium and spontaneity.
• Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.

UNIT VII: Equilibrium
Details:-
• Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium,
law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium-
Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong
and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid
strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea)., buffer solutions,
Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative
examples).

UNIT VIII: Redox Reactions
Details:-
• Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation
number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and
change in oxidation numbers.


UNIT IX: Hydrogen
Details:-
• Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydridesionic,
covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy
water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure;

UNIT X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
Details:-
• Group I and group 2 elements:
• General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties
of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of
properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical
reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
• Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:
• Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium
hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.
• Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.

UNIT XI: Some p-Block Elements
Details:-
• General Introduction to p-Block Elements.
• Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,
variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous
properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds:
borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and
alkalies.
• General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,
variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous
behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical
properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides.
• Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones,
silicates and zeolites, their uses.


UNIT XII: Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques
Details:-
• General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative
analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
• Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect,
resonance and hyper conjugation.
• Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations,
carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

UNIT XIII: Hydrocarbons
Details:-
• Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical
properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation,
combustion and pyrolysis.
• Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism,
physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of
hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and
peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
• Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties,
methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition
reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
• Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance,
aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution-
Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation;
directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene;
carcinogenicity and toxicity.

UNIT XIV: Environmental Chemistry
Details:-
• Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in
atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its
reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global
warming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool
for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.

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