CHEMISTRY CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS

                                                                 CHEMISTRY


                                              CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS   







UNIT I: Solid State
Details:-
• Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic
covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea),
unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density
of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit
cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band
theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.

UNIT II: Solutions
Details:-
• Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids,
solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relative
lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression
of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using
colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor.

UNIT III: Electrochemistry
Details:-
• Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar
conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s Law,
electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells
and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential,
Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.

UNIT IV: Chemical Kinetics
Details:-
• Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction;
concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law
and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and
first order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no
mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.

UNIT V: Surface Chemistry
Details:-
• Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases
on solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity:
enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and
suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids;
properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis,
coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.

UNIT VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Details:-
• Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction
electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of
aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

UNIT VII: p- Block Elements
Details:-
• Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,
oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and
properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only);
Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and
properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea
only).
• Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation
states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen:
preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur –
allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties and
uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture,
properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
• Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation
states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of
halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid,
interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
• Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,
trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.



UNIT VIII: d and f Block Elements
Details:-
• General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals,
general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character,
ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property,
magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and
properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
• Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and
lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
• Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with
lanthanoids.

UNIT IX: Coordination Compounds
Details:-
• Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour,
magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear
coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s
theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis,
biological systems).

UNIT X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Details:-
• Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemical
properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation.
• Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of
halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).
• Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane,
tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.

UNIT XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Details:-
• Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and
tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to
methanol and ethanol.
• Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of
phenols.
• Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties
uses.

UNIT XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Details:-
• Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of
preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic
addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
• Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical
and chemical properties; uses.

UNIT XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
Details:-
• Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical
and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary
amines.
• Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.
• Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic
organic chemistry.

UNIT XIV: Biomolecules
Details:-
• Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose
and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose),
polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.
• Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins,
primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure
(qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
• Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure).
• Vitamins- Classification and function.
• Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

UNIT XV: Polymers
Details:-
• Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and
condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and
synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable
polymers.

UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life
Details:-
• Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants,
antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
• Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea
of antioxidants.
• Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

0 comments:

Your comments about CHEMISTRY CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS